These are the other Covid-19 vaccines being developed around the world

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The go-ahead for Pfizer/BioNTech coronavirus vaccine is the first of what experts hope will be one of many versions.

Scientists around the world have been racing to develop a jab that prevents Covid-19 since the start of the pandemic.

There have already been a host of positive preliminary trial results for other candidates, including by AstraZeneca and Oxford University and US company Moderna.

So what do we know about other vaccine candidates being developed?

Oxford/AstraZeneca




The vaccine being developed by the University of Oxford and pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca is awaiting regulatory approval.

The UK has placed orders for 100 million doses of the Oxford vaccine – enough to vaccinate most of the population – with a rollout expected in the coming weeks if the jab is approved by the MHRA.

Data suggests it has 62 per cent efficacy when one full dose is given followed by another full dose, but when people were given a half dose followed by a full dose at least a month later, its efficacy rose to 90 per cent.

The combined analysis from both dosing regimes resulted in an average efficacy of 70.4 per cent.

Moderna

Trials of Moderna’s vaccine suggest it has 94.1 per cent efficacy, and 100 per cent efficacy against severe Covid-19 with no-one vaccinated with the vaccine known as mRNA-1273 developing severe coronavirus.

Moderna said the trial results indicate the jab is generally well tolerated with no serious safety concerns and the US firm is in the process of seeking regulatory approval with regulators across the world.

If approved for use in the UK, it could be rolled out in the spring.

Novavax



Minister for Equalities, Kemi Badenoch receiving her first vaccination as part of the Novavax phase 3 trial, which she is taking part in at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London

The UK is supporting and providing infrastructure to Novavax with plans to manufacture the vaccine in the UK with Fujifilm Diosynth Biotechnologies.

Clinical data for early phases of the trial suggested the vaccine triggers an immune response greater than that in patients who have recovered from the disease.

The company’s ongoing phase three clinical trial in the UK to evaluate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2373 is expected to be fully enrolled by the end of November.

Depending on the overall Covid-19 attack rate, interim data in the UK trial, which is also event-driven, are expected as soon as in the first quarter of next year.

Janssen

Phase three trials of the Janssen vaccine started in mid-November with the aim of enrolling 6,000 people in the UK, and a total of 30,000 globally.

It has already undergone phase one and two trials, and interim analysis of the single-dose study indicates the vaccine candidate induces a robust immune response and is generally well-tolerated.

UK researchers say the timing of results for their study will depend on global recruitment to the trial and the incidence of Covid-19. But suggest it generally takes six to nine months to get an outcome, but it could be longer for trials starting out now.



Vaccine doses ordered by UK

Imperial College London

This is in phase one of clinical testing, where doses are being given to a small group of people to determine whether it is safe and to learn about the immune response it provokes.

Professor Robin Shattock, who is leading Imperial’s vaccine effort, said data on its efficacy will be available in the middle of next year.

Valneva

Valneva’s site in Livingston, West Lothian, will manufacture the vaccine, and clinical trials are expected to start soon with potential to gain first regulatory approval in the second half of 2021.

Russia

Second interim trial data for Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine claims it provides 91.4 per cent protection 28 days after the first dose and the researchers say the figure is as high as 95 per cent, six weeks after the first dose.

The Russian Direct Investment Fund – which is the country’s sovereign wealth fund – said that the vaccine will cost less than £7 per dose for international markets and is expected to become available in February 2021.

Findings are from new clinical trial data based on 39 confirmed cases and 18,794 patients.

China

Early studies suggest the Chinese version appears to be safe and induces an immune response in healthy volunteers.

Trials of an inactivated Sars-CoV-2 vaccine candidate – CoronaVac – involved more than 700 healthy volunteers aged 18-59 recruited in China between April 16 and May 5.

According to preliminary tests, it appeared to be safe and well-tolerated. Phase three trials of the vaccine are continuing.



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